Life University’s Bell Tower

The Shoulders of Giants

On the campus of Life University in Marietta, Georgia, there stands a bell tower with an interior built to the size of a jail cell.

The chiropractic profession is a monument to principle and the memorial Bell Tower at Life University is a monument to the chiropractors who stood on those principles to assure the existence of chiropractic as a separate and distinct profession. Because of these six hundred principled chiropractors, whose names are carved in stone within the Bell Tower’s central “cell,” today’s chiropractors have the right to practice independently.

Much like the civil rights protesters of the fifties and sixties who were willing to pay any price – short of violence – to demand their right to exist as citizens, chiropractors throughout the first three-quarters of the twentieth century demanded their right to exist as a profession. In the process, both civil rights protesters and chiropractors were willing to be charged with – and refuse to plead guilty to – non-existent offenses. As a result, these six hundred served time in jail – often under harsh conditions – rather than submit to discriminatory practices and restraint of trade. These chiropractors refused to plead guilty to practicing medicine without a license, thereby rejecting the medical establishment’s attempt to define chiropractic as a form of medical practice, which it could then force into its model of attacking diseases rather than facilitating the innate health that is part of nature’s optimal design.

These hundreds of heroic chiropractors are well represented by a man who has become known as the most jailed chiropractor in history, Dr. Herbert Ross Reaver. Dr. Reaver is quoted as having written, “It was a matter of principle for all of us. We don’t practice medicine in any shape or form. To be designated as limited medical practitioners was something intolerable to us. And, of course, it was a useless thing anyway because the so‑called permit limited the types of cases we could handle. It was just something that any chiropractor with any guts could not accept.”*

Reaver plaque headReaver plaque verbiage

If these chiropractors had accepted the inferior status being forced upon them, they would not have stood shoulder to shoulder alongside the other great revolutionaries of their times – the suffragettes, the original labor unionists fighting for humane treatment, and the civil rights activists. These chiropractors who sacrificed so much, beginning with the profession’s founder, D.D. Palmer, were the vanguard of Vitalistic Visionaries that we celebrate and honor in this edition of TCL.

Today’s Chiropractic Leadership is focused, as the name says, on today’s leaders of the chiropractic profession – so we have not included yesterday’s leaders. And, still, the memorial Bell Tower at Life University – the brainchild of Vitalistic Visionary and founding president of Life U, Dr. Sid E. Williams – stands as a solid testament to the geniuses, mavericks, and icons needed to establish a model of vital health to balance the model of material health that sought to subsume it. The “Bell Tower chiropractors,”** the pioneers who sacrificed so much, are the giants on whose shoulders stand today’s chiropractic leadership.


*from Christopher Kent, quoting work by Alana Callendar, in Dynamic Chiropractic (see


**See a list of the Bell Tower pioneers below:

T. Abel

John Paul Jones Adams

D. Adrian

Clara Aerni

Kathryn Albers

Clifford L. Allen

Hayden W. Allen

Sue Amack

D. Anderson

Edward Anderson

George Anton

Walter J. Arnds

Alma Arnold

Roy Atwater

H. Bacon

J. Baker

Dwight C. Baker

A. Ball

Felix N. Banitch

McLeod Banks

Henry F. Barbarick

Forest A. Barkdoll

Glenn Barker

Wallace Barlow

Fred E. Bates

U. Battendorf

A. Bauer

F. Beach

Earl Bebout

T. Beckett

Donald W. Beers

Isabella Bellem

Ed Bellem

George H. Bellinger

Rosybell Benton

Mario Benvenuti

A. Berge

L. Bergener

Pierre Bergiers

Genevieve Bergiers

Ronald E. Bergman

T. Berkett

Archibald H. Bertie

Sophia Billingcamp

W. Billings

B. Black

Byron L. Black

F. Blair

Oliver F. Blaker

Ralphs S. Blend

Edgar Blitz

Phil Bloun

Peter Boike

Robert Boisvert

Ben Bolt

M. Bossler

Charles J. Boston

Clarence E. Boswell

L. Bourne

Chester Francis Bovard

Robert C. Bowie

Lucy Bowman

William Boyd

Ivan Boyer

P. Brack

Clarence Earl Bramwell

Louis P. Branca

E. Brandt

W. Breithaupt

Gerald G. Bronson, Sr.

T. Brooks

Nell Brower

Aaron A. Brown

Ira G. Brown

H. Brown

K. Brown

Walker Brown

G. Brown

L. Brown

Charles J. Brutus

W. Bullard

J. Bullock

Jennie Burwash

Jennie M. Bush

Jasper Butler

Carl Byo

Thomas J. Byrne

Charles Calvin

Emma Calvin

Jacob Cappel

E. Carpenter

B. Carroll

C. Carroll

Willard Carver

L. Cassista

E. Cattaneo

L. Chamberlin

T. Chaplin

Arthur W. Chappell

Stephen F. Cholar

William V. Cirino

Willy Claes

V. Clark

Edwin M. Clark

Tom Clarke

Van Antwerp Clarke

Charles F. Clay

Harriett Clemens

Cecil C. Clemer

Milli Cleveland

Carl S. Cleveland

Carl S. Cleveland, Jr

V. Coble

James R. Coder

B. Colbert

Elmer D. Cole

Chip Collins

A. Collinson

M. Colson

James Compton

Anna Conrad

Perry D. Cook

Fred H. Coombs

Frank Coon

W. Cotner

Fred Courtney

D. Cox

A. Crabbe

Harry Craig

H Cramblet

Charles H. Cranz

George S. Crawford

Guy Creasy

James G. Creasy

Howard T. Creasy

Roy Creasy

Mildred Creveling

George A. Cullinan

Genevieve Culver

H. Currier

C. Curtis

Sanford Darling

H. David

Blaine Davis

Harry T. Davis

H. Deadwyler

Clay L. Dean

Frank Dean

Harry DeBaun

William De Bennis

H. Debow

Frank T. DeGiacomo

F. A. DeJordy

T. Delorme

Thibaut de Maisieres

LaMoine DeRusha


George M. DeVinney

Chuck Dietz

B. Dingler

Julius Dintinsass

Henry N. Doen

Glenn Louis Doty

Edwin T. Doutt

Frank Downey

Lewis Downs

James R. Drain

H. Dreher

Gustave Dubbs

Philip Dudley

Isabel H. Dudley

Clinton D. Dugan

Muriel B. Dulysle

L. DuPraw

Con Durst

C. Dwyer

Julius Eckert

G. Eckols

J. Eckols

P. Eifertsen

Dorland Eighme

B. C. Eilers

Dick Elhart

Newton J. Elliott

A. Emerson

Jerry England

Health Engmark

W. Erdman

E. Erickson

B. Evans

F. Fallot

Roger C. Farmer

Alice Farr

H. Farrel

Clement Ferguson

William Ferris

Joseph B. Fife

Walter W. Fife

Frank O. Filbey

Jennie E. Filbey

Clyde Robert Fisher

Marcus S. Fite

Iron R. Florence

John E. Flynn

Roscoe Ford

Ellis W. Ford

A. Ford

Antoine Fortin

Edwin C. Fortin

Noel Fosse


W. Foster

LaJune Foster

Corbin Fox, Sr

C. Foy

W. Frampton


A. Freeland

J. Freenor

Alvin R. Frickson

Nathaniel Friedman

F. Frisk

C. Frutiger

Lynn W. Frye

O. Fuller

Frank J. Fuller

Susan Funkhouser

O. Funkhouser

Harry Gallagher

William B. Gallagher, Sr.

H. Gearden

H. Gearin

Herbert Gefell

E. George

Arvid Gerdin

Irene Gerdin

W. Geroux

Hilda Gerox

Jules Gillet

John Gillet

Henri Gillet

Marcel Gillet

Frank E. Gingas


Lorraine M. Golden

John Good

Leroy M. Gordon

A. Gracey

W. Grainger

William Grant

Frank I. Gray

Charles W. Green

Elmer G. Green

D. Greenall

D. Greenfield

Mildred Greveling

H. Griggs

Gaston Gross

A. Grover

A. Gurden

Jeanette Habich

Ezekeil Hadsell

C. Haffner

Beatrice Hagen

F. Hahan

Joshua Norman Haldeman

Irving B. Hall

W. Hall

A. Hall

Glenn Hall

Helen Hall

W. Halverson

Pinkney Hamilton

Harold C. Hammil

George B. Hampton

Rodney E. Handly, Sr.

Robert A. Hanlon

E. Hargett

George W. Harman

Hazel E. Harper

A. Harvey


B. Hash

A. Hatch

W. Hatfield

Patricia Hay
Arnold Hayward

A. Heath

George Heiley

John H. Heitman

George Helic

W. Helms

Lloyd Henby

Graham R. Henderson

Jennie M. Henderson

Vanetta Henderson

Frank M. Henry

Lon H. Herrington

Wiliam Hicks

John D. Himes

Benton Hinkley

Gerry E. Hinton

Edward T. Hobe


Edward F. Hogan

Fred M. Holder

E. Hollenbeck

A. Hollos

H. Holloway

J. Holt

L. Hook

R. Hopkins

William Horner

Margaret Horner

Claude L. Houck

Bernard Hubley

R. Huffer

Alice Huhn

Marcus E. Hull

Arthur Clarence Humphrey

E. Hunt

Lowell S. Hunter

G. Hurlburt

P. Huxoll

B. Ingalls

Posey E. Ingram

Lillian B. Ingram

B. Inman

Fred D. Irish

Daisy Irish

Charles E. Ishler

Henry S. Iverson


H. Jaeger

Joe H. Jeffreys


William Jennewin

Elizabeth W. Jiras

Glenn John

Ben R. Johnson

B. Johnson

I. Johnson

N. Johnson

W. Johnson

E. Jones

John Jones

H. Joslin

Fred Kabana

Harold Karas

George A. Karcher

A. Kaufman

James Erwin Keel

W. Keene

G. Kelly

G. Keys

A. Kieferle

Craig Kightlinger

E. Kiley

James A. King

James N. King

James R. King

A. Kinsel

Daniel Kane Kirk

Minnie Kirkpatrick

Eugene Kiser

Jacob G. Klein

W. Klein

John W. Klema

Jake G. Kline

L. Knechtly

Hazel J. Knechtly

Clyde V. Kness

Fred Knierim

A. Knisely

Roy Knopp

Nell Knopp

Leonard Knowles

Roy Koffel

John F. Kolar

Ben Krelic

J. Kreuz

F. Kristensen

Morris Kronman

F. Kucfra

Ray S. LaBarre

Joseph LaFrance

Louis Lala

A. Lalli

Cecil D. Laney

Martin Langhough

H. Langley

L. Larey

Augusta E. Larson

James H. Laubach

George E. Lauby

Harry Law

L. Lawless

H. Layzell

B. Leach

Minnie Leach

Franklin Lear

Seward S. Leather

Henri Leonard LeBel

Lyndon E. Lee

Bernard F. Lee

Lulu M. LeMaitre

Charles C. Lemley

Ward F. Leonard

E. Leonburger

N. Leslie

Marcel Liekens

Maurice Liekens

Joseph H. Liles

M. Loe

Frank O. Logic

Herman Lohman

L. Lorey

P. Lorey

R. Lotz

Lyman Love

A. Lozier

George E. Luby

Rubin Luckens

D. H. Lussmann

A. Lutz

E. Lynch

C. Lyon

Manuel Machado

Ruth Mack

Fred Maclean

E. Mahaffey

Thomas P. Maher

W. Maier

Beautreau Major

Frank Malin

V. Malouf

Ethel Thrall Maltby

A. Markwell

Pieter Martin

B. Martindell

J. Maskell

Arthur I. Mcauliffe

John A. McCarl

J. McCarthy

Linden McCash

Fred McClean

A. McCleleand

E. McClelland

Ross McCone

Joe McDonald

John McDonald

Dayton C. McEwen, Sr.

James McGinnis

James F. McGinnis

Archibald McGlip

Fredrick McGregor

Thomas A. McIlroy

Charles McKay

Otto McKeever

Ira J. McKell

R. McLain

Elmere McMullen

Donald B. Mears, Sr

D. Medcalf

E. Mehaffey

Anton Meister

Frank Melin

A. Menegay

J. Mercer

Bill Merchant

Nicole D. E. Merkline

Edward A. Mernin

Carrie Method

James Method

Charles Mettenry

Ernest G. Meyer

August J. Meyer

H. Meyers

William C. Meyers

Ben Miles

George H. Miller

T. Miller

Mary Miller

Carl J. Mills

L. Minor

P. Mohney

H. Molthen

Edith Iona Moon

Howard B. Moore

C. Moore

Jennie Moore

Frank A. Moorehouse

D. Mooring

E. Moran

Marcus Morkert

Owen Morkert

Morris Mortensen

B. Mory

Forest Mossholder

Lawrence N. Mossholder

Simon Mueller

Leo J. Murphy

J. Murray

L. Muth

Paul L. Myers

V. Nash

Joseph Neidhart

Marcel Nelis

E .V. Nelson

George Newsalt

A. Nielsen

I. Nielson

Carrie Norvall

J. Nosser

Ernest Novak

H. Olsen

D. Olsen

Rudolph Olsen

Helen L. O’Neal

M. O’Neil

Joseph F. O’Neil

Allan Larue Ott

Geneva Overend

David D. Owen

D. Palmer

C. Parchen

H. Parchen

Marie P. Parish

D. Parks

Clarence E. Parson

E. Paterson

Lucille Peake


Robert D. Pendergast

N. Peters

Bruce Peterson

V. Peterson

H. Pfeifer

Paul J. Phillips

J. Phillips

William E. Pietschman

F. Pintler

P. Piscart

Stephane Pletain

William G. Poole

Isaac Poole

Glenn Potter

William D. Powell

E. Preston

Willams F. Price

F. Prisk

John Frank Pruett

Joseph E. Pruett

A. Puddicombe

Logan Pugh

Frank F. Pyott

H. Pyott

B. Quartier

I. Ragland

Bertha M. Rank

Wayne C. Rank

F. Ratledge

F. Raulfs

Clarence Reaver

Herbert Ross Reaver

Russel Reaver

Thomas L. Reese

D. Reinhart

J. Reinhart

Arthur B. Render

Olive Rew

George Rice

W. Richardson

Roger E. Richardson

Stanley Livingston Riddet

Victor F. Ripple

R. Risner

Paul R. Ritchie

C. Ritter

A. Robertus

B. Robeson

A. Robeson

S. Robinson

Charles J. Robinson

Ralph M. Rogers

M. Rogge

L. Roller

H. Rollins

Frank J. Romaine

Arthur L. Rose

Archie Rose

Joseph Rosen

Grace G. Roser

E. Ross

Katherine Rowenkamp

Nettie E. Rubert

A. Rutschow

Michael Sabia

Willie Sachs

M. Sargent

Eva G. Sauer

R. Saur

Reat D. Sawtell

Arthur Saxe

George Saxmann

Katherine “Kitty” Scallon

Mack Scallon

Frank Schaffer

J. Schamacke

Dominic Joseph Schiayo

E. Schillig

Guy A. Schoy

Edward J. Schreiber

E. Schroeder

J. Schultz

John H. Schuneman

G. Schwanzl

Herman Schwartz

Gabrielle Scohy

Thomas E. Seddon

Susan T. Seed

R. Sevits

Charles W. Sewart

E. Seymour

E. Shahzada

G. Sherwin

Claude Ship

Herman Shwartz

L. Silver

Isadore P. Silverman

William P. Sim

Jack L. Sims

B. Sims

Allen P. Sipes

L. Siver

George F. Smith

Vance L. Snodgrass

Raymond C. Snow

Adolpus M. Snyder

Harold Solem

Andre Sonkes

E. Sorensen

James P. Sorensen

Daniel C. Spears

Leo L. Spears

John W. Staben


H. N. Staggers

T. Steirs

David A. Stemen

E. Stephenson

F. Sterns

Charles W. Stewart

Jack Stimmel

Wilbur F. Stires

Adolph Stoerker

M. Stoppe

W. Stoppe

Paul Strand

Al Strawser

Irene Strawser

Kenneth S. Strayer

J. Streb

E. Stump

Daniel E. Swafford

G. Swaggard

Webster Swallen

E. Swem

Jessie Takahasi

Tonzu Tanaka

Ainsley Telefson

Ernesta Temple

Fredrick C. Terry

C. Thatcher

M. Thedgar

L. Thomas

C. Thomas

Fra Thompson

Walter Thompson

Henry Thorne

John Till

Paul D. Tippens

Dorothea Towne

Zene Tozer

S. Tracy

D. Treseder

Claude O. Turner

Albert Vack

Ervin VanDehey

Bessie Vandruff

Richard Van Rumpt

Geneva Verend

Pete Visser

B. Vlasak

Joseph M. Voza

F. Waldram

Alex F. Ward

H. Ward

M. Warner

Ernest Warren

J. Watkins

Georges Wauters

Andre Wauters

Steven Weaver

John W. Webb

John H. Weddington

Lorraine Welch

I. Wenger

William Werner

Marie Werner

Ellis W. West

Louis O. West

D. Wheeler

B. Whidden

F. White

O. White

Meade H. Whiteside

G. Whitzell

L. Wiater

C. Wilhelm

I. Williams

Al Williams

E. Willis

Reba I. Willis

Abraham Winogradow

J. Winsinger

Charles J. Witbeck

William Grant Witts

H. Wolf

Lenore Wright

C. Wright

Luna Kerr Young

H. Zechman

E. Zechman

Harry A. Zeiger

F. Ziefle

W. Zilar

Josaphine Zimmerman-Bliss

Fredrick L. Zinke



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